Green Building Requirements

In order to fulfill the requirements of Green Building standards and initiatives, the systems shall support integration with a standard integration platform, advanced controllability, and sophisticated monitoring, measurement, verification and versatile reporting.The most important prerequisite for achieving Green Building status is the efficient functional integration of building systems. The systems shall function smoothly together according to modes of the building or the space, prevailing conditions and needs/preferences of the users. The integrated operations shall be fully automatic, triggered by one input, having appropriate impact to all systems in the building.

System integration shall enable significantly lower energy consumption, real-time control and monitoring, and dynamic graphics according to needs. System integration shall create better environmental air quality, radically improved energy performance and increased water efficiency, according to requirements of LEED and other Green Building standard and initiatives.

System integration shall also allow for efficient system maintenance and full-scale service provisioning with radically lower cost and better quality services. Easy access to building systems shall ensures that everything is in perfect condition and functions in the optimal way at all times. Should anything disturbing happen, immediate response shall be available. Integration shall facilitate undisturbed conditions in the building and sustainable development through minimized energy consumption, first-class security and significantly lower life cycle costs.

Building Management & Security System

Building Management and Security Systems, including building automation, lighting controls, consumption measurements, access control, intruder alarms, video monitoring, fire alarms, central battery system and home automation, shall be integrated using the Building Operating System (BOS) as the integration platform, which shall provide functionality as described in the System Architecture.


Building Automation

Building automation includes control and monitoring of cooling/heating system, ventilation system, pumps, tanks, lifts etc. All mechanical and electrical systems shall be monitored and controlled by smart control nodes connected to Local Operating Network (LON). 

Building automation systems shall be integrated with lighting controls, security systems and fire alarm system as specified in the System Architecture. Building automation shall be connected to the central user interface through the Building Operating System (BOS).


Distribution Of Intelegence

The intelligence of the automation systems shall be distributed into Smart Control Nodes, which are connected to control network (LON). Smart Control Nodes must be commonly used during past 10 years in large scale commercial facilities, such as offices, business centers or hotels. It shall be possible to integrate the systems on Control Level without interference of Management Level, according to System Architecture. 

Communication between Smart Control Nodes shall be peer-to-peer communication via a Free Topology (FTT-10) Local Operating Network (LON) with the Standard Network Variables Types (SNVT). All communication shall be event based. Nodes shall be intelligent modules, capable of operating autonomously independently of Management Level. For example, all systems must be able to react to alarms on the Control Level without interference from upper levels.


Usage of I/O Point

Each node shall have about 10 I/O points to achieve maximum reliability and flexibility. Each node shall be capable of handling several different systems in parallel through flexible distribution of I/O points. The I/O points of the Control nodes shall be as follows:

- DI: Digital indication, from potential free contact 

- DO: Digital control, open collector 

- AI: Analog input, standard measurements 0-10 VDC, PT1000 or Ni1000-LG. 

- AO: Analog control, 0-10 VDC or 20 mA 

The Control nodes shall include PID controllers and ON/OFF (thermostat) functions for implementing the control loops used in engineering system process controls. Logical functions shall be implemented using configurable software objects in the Control nodes. 

Field devices are connected to Control nodes using the common industry standards: 

- PT-1000 for temperature 

- 0-10 V for other sensors and actuators 

- Potential free contacts for ON/OFF indications and push buttons 

- 24 V relays for ON/OFF controls 

- Impulses for consumption measurements 

To guarantee openness, flexibility and cost-efficient maintenance of the integrated systems, the field devices shall not include independent control logic. 

Control nodes are placed to the nearest electric cabin, side of air-handling units or in separate cabins when adequate. All systems shall use the same control network cabling, which uses free topology to maximize flexibility for future modifications and to minimize the need for cables. Electrical design should utilise star topology for controlled loads to maximize flexibility for changes.

General Purpose Controller

General Purpose Controllers shall be freely configurable to achieve maximum reliability and flexibility and to meet the sequence of operation and future modifications. 

Configuration shall be done with a graphical system configuration tool, which shall be compatible with the Building Operating System (BOS). The tool shall produce BOS compatible XML document about all integrated systems, which can be used as such to run the BOS.


Special Purpose Controller

Special Purpose Controllers shall be used as autonomous controllers in rooms, zones and fan coil units. Each Special Purpose Controller alone shall be capable of controlling temperature, air quality (CO2) and lighting in the room or zone. Special Purpose Controllers shall communicate on LON bus. 

It shall be possible for the FCU controller to automatically change the FCU motor speed based on temperature deviation. The FCU controller shall regulate the cooling valve to meet the desired temperature conditions. FCU controllers shall communicate on LON bus and shall be integrated with BMS system to enable energy optimization and reporting.

Lighting Control

Lighting of common areas of the building shall be controlled by smart control nodes, which shall be connected to LON field bus in the same way as desribed in the chapter Building Automation. Lighting controls shall be implemented as part of the integrated Building Automation system. 

Lighting groups in the common areas are on/off controlled (and/or dimmed) as follows: 

- Using local push buttons (on/off, on/off/up/down, lighting scenes) 

- On occupancy 

- Based on illumination level (dusk) 

 - Time schedules 

Lighting controls are integrated with building automation and security systems and connected to the central user interface through BOS. 


Consumption Metering

Consumptions of water, electricity, gas and cooling energy shall be measured in each area / apartment. Water and electricity meters shall be equipped with impulse outputs. Impulse outputs are connected to Smart Control Nodes, which are connected to Local Operating Network (LON). BTU meters shall be connected direct to control network. All consumptions shall be trended into BOS’s database for generating regular consumption reports. 

Different type of reports have to be generated for professional users and occupants. Occupant reports must be easy to understand and they must increase environmental awareness according to LEED and other green building initiatives. 


Access Control & Intruder Alarms

Access control system shall be integrated with building automation, lighting controls and other security systems using the Building Operating System (BOS) as the integration platform. 

Access control shall be implemented with proximity readers, control nodes, electronic keys and electronic locks. Users can be classified so that they have access only to the spaces they are allowed to enter according to programmed time schedules. The access control system is connected to BOS for full control and reporting, and integrated into the central user interface. 

Intruder alarm system shall include perimeter protection and indoor surveillance. Monitored doors and windows shall be equipped with magnetic contacts. Movement detectors used in indoor surveillance shall be sensitive enough for presence detection of a single person, so that they can also be used for lighting controls and air-conditioning controls. 

Intruder alarms are seamlessly integrated on software level to access control, CCTV/DVR/NVR, lighting control and building automation. Granted access disarms the alarm zones automatically. In case of burglary the system gives an alarm, which is relayed through BOS to Service Center and/or to specified mobile phones. 


Network Controllers

Network Controllers shall connect access control and intruder alarm system with Management Level using an open interface utilizing TCP/IP protocol. 

Network Controllers shall connect with up to 32 Interface Panels using RS-485 bus. The door/reader Interface Panels shall operate also autonomously with no connection to a Network Controller. Network Controllers shall buffer the offline transactions from Interface Panels when connection to the BOS server is down and send the transactions when the connection is restored. 

The Network Controller shall enable access control database with 44.000 card holders. The memory of the Network Controller shall be easily expandable to accommodate up to 250.000 card holders. Each card holder can belong to max 8 access groups. The total number of available access groups in the system shall be 65.535. Each access group shall have a schedule based access to defined door groups. 

The Network Controllers shall be able to communicate with each other to create large-scale area control solutions with independent control logics. Area control solutions shall be expandable using TCP/IP network to include door/reader Interface Panels located under several Network Controllers. 

Network Controller shall have local inputs for tamper and battery failure for indications and alarms. 


Interface Panels

The selection of Interface Panels shall include at least Door/Reader Interface Panel, Input Monitor Interface Panel and Output Control Interface Panel. The Interface Panels shall connect with Network Controllers using RS-485 bus. 

Door/Reader Interface Panels shall have two reader interfaces utilizing standard Wiegand protocol. Depending on application, the panel can be configured to control two sets of separate doors with a reader and an exit button, or one door with two-side readers (entry/exit). 

In addition to the two reader interfaces, the Door/Reader Interface Panels shall have the following inputs and outputs: door monitor input, exit button input, strike relay output, auxiliary relay output. 

Door/Reader Interface Panels shall be capable of indicating door forced and door held alarms also locally by using the internal beeper of the reader. 

Interface Panels shall have local inputs for tamper and battery failure for indications and alarms. 

The Input Monitoring Interface Panel shall be used to interface e.g. magnetic contacts and motion detectors to indicate alarm events. The Input Monitoring Interface Panel shall include 16 supervised alarm inputs and 2 relay outputs. 

Output Control Interface Panel shall be used mainly to control lifts. The Output Control Interface Panel shall have 12 relay outputs and 2 supervised alarm inputs. 

It shall be possible to create complex I/O linking and rules between Network Controllers and Interface Panels. 



The system shall support a variety of readers using standard Wiegand protocol, including plain readers, keypad readers, long-range readers and biometric readers. Readers should be based on 125 kHz proximity technology or 13.56 MHz contactless smart card technology, e.g. Mifare or iCLASS. 

The system shall support a variety of credentials, including but not limited to e.g. traditional proximity cards and tags.

Video Monitoring

Video monitoring shall be implemented with Digital Video Recording (DVR) or a fully IP based Network Video Recording (NVR) system. The video monitoring system shall be integrated to BOS server so that the system shall start recording video stream upon triggering from intruder alarm system, access control, CCTV or any other system integrated to BMS. 

The video monitoring system shall support both analog and IP cameras. The system shall preferably run on Linux operating system. Usage can be done both via video monitoring system’s own User Interface Client and the integrated user interface of the BOS. 

In addition to the software based user interface, it shall be possible to additionally expand the operator workstation with hardware based keypad and joystick interfaced with the system. 


Fire Alarms

Fire alarm system shall be integrated with BMS for monitoring. Fire alarm system can be integrated either by 1.) using potential free contacts of Fire Alarm Panels connected to control modules or as 2.) using system driver which gives alarm information on individual sensor level to BOS. In both cases alarms are relayed to BOS and shown in the integrated graphical user interfaces. Ventilation is shut down in the area concerned. 

Other Systems

Other systems shall enable integration to BOS, whenever applicable.